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The current systematic review and meta-analysis investigated the effect of probiotic/synbiotic on a wide range of inflammatory and anti-inflammatory markers in healthy and various disease conditions. PubMed, SCOPUS and Web of Science databases were searched. All clinical trials which investigated the effect of oral administration of probiotic or synbiotic on inflammatory markers (C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin (IL) 1β, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12, tumor necrosis factor (TNF) α, interferon (IFN) γ and transforming growth factor (TGF) β) for more than one week with concurrent control groups were included. One-hundred sixty seven publications was analysed. Results were as follows: CRP decreased in healthy, metabolic disorders, inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), arthritis and critically ill condition but not in renal failure. IL-1B: no change in healthy subjects and arthritis. TNF-α: decreased in healthy, fatty liver, IBD and hepatic cirrhosis, no change in diabetes, metabolic syndrome (MS) + PCOS (polycystic ovary syndrome) and arthritis. IL-6: no change in healthy, metabolic disorders and arthritis, increased in cirrhosis and renal failure, decreased in PCOS + MS. IL-10: no change in healthy, IBD and metabolic disorders, increased in arthritis. IL-4, IL-8, IL-12, IFN-g and TGF-b: no change in healthy subjects. In conclusion, probiotic/synbiotic decreased some of the inflammatory markers. The intervention was most effective in CRP and TNF-α reduction in healthy or disease state. Moreover, the intervention decreased inflammation most effectively in the following disease conditions, respectively: IBD, arthritis, fatty liver.
Seyed Mohammad Mazloomi
Asma Kazemi,Sepideh Soltani,Sima Ghorabi,Abbas Keshtkar,Elnaz Daneshzad,Fatemeh Nasri,Seyed Mohammad Mazloomi