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The human gut is inhabited by a large variety of microorganims involved in many physiological processes and collectively refered as to gut microbiota. Disrupted microbiome has been associated with negative health outcomes and especially could promote the onset of enteric infections. To sustain their growth and persistence within the human digestive tract, gut microbes and enteric pathogens rely on two main polysaccharide compartments, namely dietary fibers and mucus carbohydrates. Several evidences suggest that the three-way relationship between gut microbiota, dietary fibers and mucus layer could unravel the capacity of enteric pathogens to colonize the human digestive tract and ultimately lead to infection. The review starts by shedding light on similarities and differences between dietary fibers and mucus carbohydrates structures and functions. Next, we provide an overview of the interactions of these two components with the third partner, namely the gut microbiota, under health and diseased situations. The review will then provide insights into the relevance of using dietary fibers interventions to prevent enteric infections with a focus on gut microbial imbalance and impaired-mucus integrity. Facing the numerous challenges in studying microbiota-pathogen-dietary fiber-mucus interactions, we lastly describe the characteristics and potentialities of currently available in vitro models of the human gut.
Sauvaitre Thomas,Etienne-Mesmin Lucie,Sivignon Adeline,Mosoni Pascale,Courtin Christophe,Van de Wiele Tom,Blanquet-Diot Stéphanie