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Increasing evidences show that the ATPase Inhibitory Factor 1 (IF1), the physiological inhibitor of the ATP synthase, is overexpressed in a large number of carcinomas contributing to metabolic reprogramming and cancer progression. Herein, we show that in contrast to the findings in other carcinomas, the overexpression of IF1 in a cohort of colorectal carcinomas (CRC) predicts less chances of disease recurrence, IF1 being an independent predictor of survival. Bioinformatic and gene expression analyses of the transcriptome of colon cancer cells with differential expression of IF1 indicate that cells overexpressing IF1 display a less aggressive behavior than IF1 silenced (shIF1) cells. Proteomic and functional in vitro migration and invasion assays confirmed the higher tumorigenic potential of shIF1 cells. Moreover, shIF1 cells have increased in vivo metastatic potential. The higher metastatic potential of shIF1 cells relies on increased cFLIP-mediated resistance to undergo anoikis after cell detachment. Furthermore, tumor spheroids of shIF1 cells have an increased ability to escape from immune surveillance by NK cells. Altogether, the results reveal that the overexpression of IF1 acts as a tumor suppressor in CRC with an important anti-metastatic role, thus supporting IF1 as a potential therapeutic target in CRC.
José M Cuezva
Lucía González-Llorente,Fulvio Santacatterina,Ana García-Aguilar,Cristina Nuevo-Tapioles,Sara González-García,Zuzana Tirpakova,María Luisa Toribio,José M Cuezva