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The gut microbiome can vary across differences in host lifestyle, geography, and host species. By comparing closely related host species across varying lifestyles and geography, we can evaluate the relative contributions of these factors in structuring the composition and functions of the microbiome. Here we show that the gut microbial taxa, microbial gene family composition, and resistomes of great apes and humans are more related by host lifestyle than geography. We show that captive chimpanzees and gorillas are enriched for microbial genera commonly found in non-Westernized humans. Captive ape microbiomes also had up to ~34-fold higher abundance and up to ~5-fold higher richness of all antibiotic resistance genes compared with wild apes. Through functional metagenomics, we identified a number of novel antibiotic resistance genes, including a gene conferring resistance to colistin, an antibiotic of last resort. Finally, by comparing our study cohorts to human and ape gut microbiomes from a diverse range of environments and lifestyles, we find that the influence of host lifestyle is robust to various geographic locations.
Tayte P Campbell
Tayte P Campbell,Xiaoqing Sun,Vishal H Patel,Crickette Sanz,David Morgan,Gautam Dantas