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The fetal immune system develops in a rather sterile environment relative to the outside world and, therefore, lacks antigenic education. Soon after birth, the newborn is exposed to the hostile environment of pathogens. Recently, animaland limited human-based studies have indicated that help from the mother, upon transfer of leukocytes and their products via breast milk feeding, greatly assists the newborn’s immune system. Here, I discuss the newest advances on how milk leukocytes impact early life immunity, with an emphasis on the development of the infant T cell repertoire and early immune responses in the periphery and gut-associated lymphoid tissue. A deeper understanding of these novel mechanistic insights may inform potential translational approaches to improving immunity in infants.