鸵鸟雏鸟高死亡率或与菌群失调有关
  • 对3月龄内患病鸵鸟雏鸟回肠、盲肠、结肠菌群分析显示,其死亡率与菌群紊乱特别是低α多样性相关;
  • 此种关系在回肠最显著且贯穿始终,而在盲肠、结肠则随着年龄增长而减弱;
  • 患病鸵鸟肠道菌群中肠杆菌科、消化链球菌科、紫单胞菌科及梭菌属致病共生菌急剧增殖,而S24-7、毛螺菌科等“有益”共生菌则丰度下降;
  • 环境微生物分析显示致病共生菌未污染食物、水和土壤,但在孵化不久就出现在粪便中,导致雏鸟数周后的高死亡率。
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solo
菌群失调导致的肠道、自体免疫疾病在脊椎动物包括小鼠、人类IBD中被充分验证。但我们对于非模型动物的菌群紊乱、个体发育与疾病的关系则知之尚少。最新发表的肠道微生物组文章表明,在鸵鸟这种相对长寿的大型禽类中,出生前三个月的死亡率非常高,或可由肠道菌群紊乱导致。值得思考的是鸵鸟肠道菌群失调的特征、致病共生菌和“有益”共生菌的变化模式与人类相似。或许在进化过程中,致病“肠型”在不同物种间相对恒定?
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Microbiome [IF:11.607]

Early-life gut dysbiosis linked to juvenile mortality in ostriches

生命早期肠道菌群失调与鸵鸟雏鸟死亡率相关

10.1186/s40168-020-00925-7

2020-10-12, Article

Abstract & Authors:展开

Abstract:收起
Background: Imbalances in the gut microbial community (dysbiosis) of vertebrates have been associated with several gastrointestinal and autoimmune diseases. However, it is unclear which taxa are associated with gut dysbiosis, and if particular gut regions or specific time periods during ontogeny are more susceptible. We also know very little of this process in non-model organisms, despite an increasing realization of the general importance of gut microbiota for health.
Methods: Here, we examine the changes that occur in the microbiome during dysbiosis in different parts of the gastrointestinal tract in a long-lived bird with high juvenile mortality, the ostrich (Struthio camelus). We evaluated the 16S rRNA gene composition of the ileum, cecum, and colon of 68 individuals that died of suspected enterocolitis during the first 3 months of life (diseased individuals), and of 50 healthy individuals that were euthanized as age-matched controls. We combined these data with longitudinal environmental and fecal sampling to identify potential sources of pathogenic bacteria and to unravel at which stage of development dysbiosis-associated bacteria emerge.
Results: Diseased individuals had drastically lower microbial alpha diversity and differed substantially in their microbial beta diversity from control individuals in all three regions of the gastrointestinal tract. The clear relationship between low diversity and disease was consistent across all ages in the ileum, but decreased with age in the cecum and colon. Several taxa were associated with mortality (Enterobacteriaceae, Peptostreptococcaceae, Porphyromonadaceae, Clostridium), while others were associated with health (Lachnospiraceae, Ruminococcaceae, Erysipelotrichaceae, Turicibacter, Roseburia). Environmental samples showed no evidence of dysbiosis-associated bacteria being present in either the food, water, or soil substrate. Instead, the repeated fecal sampling showed that pathobionts were already present shortly after hatching and proliferated in individuals with low microbial diversity, resulting in high mortality several weeks later.
Conclusions: Identifying the origins of pathobionts in neonates and the factors that subsequently influence the establishment of diverse gut microbiota may be key to understanding dysbiosis and host development.

First Authors:
Elin Videvall

Correspondence Authors:
Elin Videvall

All Authors:
Elin Videvall,Se Jin Song,Hanna M Bensch,Maria Strandh,Anel Engelbrecht,Naomi Serfontein,Olof Hellgren,Adriaan Olivier,Schalk Cloete,Rob Knight,Charlie K Cornwallis

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