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Maternal health status is vital for the development of the offspring of humans including physiological health and psychological functions. The complex and diverse microbial ecosystem residing within humans contributes critically to these intergenerational impacts. Perinatal factors including maternal nutrition, antibiotic use, and maternal stress alter the maternal gut microbiota during pregnancy, which can be transmitted to the offspring. In addition, gestational age at birth and mode of delivery are indicated frequently to modulate the acquisition and development of gut microbiota in early life. The early-life gut microbiota engages in a range of host biological processes, particularly immunity, cognitive neurodevelopment, and metabolism. The perturbed early-life gut microbiota increases the risk for disease in early and later life, highlighting the importance of understanding relationships of perinatal factors with early-life microbial composition and functions. In this review, we present an overview of the crucial perinatal factors and summarise updated knowledge of early-life microbiota, as well as how the perinatal factors shape gut microbiota at short- and long-term. We further discuss the clinical consequences of perturbations of early-life gut microbiota and potential therapeutic interventions with probiotics/live biotherapeutics.
Shaopu Wang,Muireann Egan
Shaopu Wang,Muireann Egan,C Anthony Ryan,Patrick Boyaval,Eugene M Dempsey,R Paul Ross,Catherine Stanton