孕期素食主义与妊娠结局的关联
创作:Epi汪 审核:Epi汪 2020年11月27日
  • 纳入美国队列中1948名孕妇,其中6.2%的女性在孕期自我报告为素食主义者;
  • 而通过饮食量表评估,有2%的孕妇为全素食主义者,0.6%为佩斯科-素食主义者,17.6%为半素食主义者;
  • 全素食主义者后代低于胎龄儿风险增高2.51倍,而妊娠中期体重增加不足的风险增加2.24倍;
  • 但是因低体重而产后死亡的发生率并无增加;
  • 同时,孕期素食主义与妊娠期糖尿病、妊娠期高血压疾病、妊娠期贫血等疾病的关联并无统计学意义。
主编推荐语
Epi汪
素食主义不仅是一种饮食文化,也与人体健康息息相关。在本研究中,提到的“pesco-素食主义者”在国内尚未流行,是一种除了素菜以外,仍然摄入鱼类和海鲜的饮食模式。妊娠期采取这些饮食模式的女性其是否会对妊娠结局产生有利或者有害的影响,尚不得而知。基于此,本研究利用人群队列研究,初步对其进行探索,发现全素食主义者低于胎龄儿风险增高,但是其他不良妊娠结局风险无统计学改变。
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Vegetarian diets during pregnancy, and maternal and neonatal outcomes

孕期素食主义者和母婴结局之间的关联

10.1093/ije/dyaa200

2020-11-24, Article

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Background: Vegetarian diets are becoming increasingly popular in the USA. Limited research has examined the health consequences of vegetarian diets during pregnancy. We comprehensively examined associations of vegetarianism during pregnancy with maternal and neonatal outcomes.
Methods: We used data from the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development’s Fetal Growth Studies–Singletons, a prospective multi-site cohort of 1948 low-risk pregnant women of four races/ethnicities (White, Black, Hispanic, Asian/Pacific Islander) in the USA (2009–2013). Vegetarianism was self-reported and also defined based on dietary patterns measured using a self-administered first-trimester food-frequency questionnaire (full [lacto-ovo and vegan], pesco-, semi- and non-vegetarians). Neonatal outcomes included birthweight and neonatal anthropometric measures, small for gestational age, small for gestational age with neonatal morbidity and preterm delivery. Maternal outcomes included gestational weight gain, gestational diabetes, hypertensive disorders of pregnancy and gestational anaemia.
Results: Ninety-nine (6.2%) women self-reported being vegetarian. The diet-based definition identified 32 (2.0%) full vegetarians, 7 (0.6%) pesco-vegetarians and 301 (17.6%) semi-vegetarians. Neonates of diet-based full vegetarians had higher odds of being small for gestational age [adjusted odds ratio (ORadj) = 2.51, 95% confidence interval: 1.01, 6.21], but not of being small for gestational age with a postnatal morbidity. Full vegetarians had marginally increased the odds of inadequate second-trimester gestational weight gain (ORadj = 2.24, 95% confidence interval: 0.95, 5.27).
Conclusion: Vegetarian diets during pregnancy were associated with constitutionally smaller neonatal size, potentially via the mothers’ reduced gestational weight gain. Notably, vegetarianism was not associated with small-for-gestational-age-related morbidities or other adverse maternal outcomes.

First Authors:
Samrawit F Yisahak

Correspondence Authors:
Jagteshwar Grewal

All Authors:
Samrawit F Yisahak,Stefanie N Hinkle,Sunni L Mumford,Mengying Li,Victoria C Andriessen,Katherine L Grantz,Cuilin Zhang,Jagteshwar Grewal

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