Abstract & Authors:展开
Background: Vegetarian diets are becoming increasingly popular in the USA. Limited research has examined the health consequences of vegetarian diets during pregnancy. We comprehensively examined associations of vegetarianism during pregnancy with maternal and neonatal outcomes.
Methods: We used data from the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development’s Fetal Growth Studies–Singletons, a prospective multi-site cohort of 1948 low-risk pregnant women of four races/ethnicities (White, Black, Hispanic, Asian/Pacific Islander) in the USA (2009–2013). Vegetarianism was self-reported and also defined based on dietary patterns measured using a self-administered first-trimester food-frequency questionnaire (full [lacto-ovo and vegan], pesco-, semi- and non-vegetarians). Neonatal outcomes included birthweight and neonatal anthropometric measures, small for gestational age, small for gestational age with neonatal morbidity and preterm delivery. Maternal outcomes included gestational weight gain, gestational diabetes, hypertensive disorders of pregnancy and gestational anaemia.
Results: Ninety-nine (6.2%) women self-reported being vegetarian. The diet-based definition identified 32 (2.0%) full vegetarians, 7 (0.6%) pesco-vegetarians and 301 (17.6%) semi-vegetarians. Neonates of diet-based full vegetarians had higher odds of being small for gestational age [adjusted odds ratio (ORadj) = 2.51, 95% confidence interval: 1.01, 6.21], but not of being small for gestational age with a postnatal morbidity. Full vegetarians had marginally increased the odds of inadequate second-trimester gestational weight gain (ORadj = 2.24, 95% confidence interval: 0.95, 5.27).
Conclusion: Vegetarian diets during pregnancy were associated with constitutionally smaller neonatal size, potentially via the mothers’ reduced gestational weight gain. Notably, vegetarianism was not associated with small-for-gestational-age-related morbidities or other adverse maternal outcomes.
Samrawit F Yisahak
Samrawit F Yisahak,Stefanie N Hinkle,Sunni L Mumford,Mengying Li,Victoria C Andriessen,Katherine L Grantz,Cuilin Zhang,Jagteshwar Grewal