Abstract & Authors:展开
Context: We compared the efficacy, safety and effect of 45-day isocaloric very-low-calorie ketogenic diets (VLCKDs) incorporating whey, vegetable or animal protein on the microbiota in patients with obesity and insulin resistance to test the hypothesis that protein source may modulate the response to VLCKD interventions.
Subjects and Methods: Forty-eight patients with obesity [19 males and 29 females, HOMA index ≥ 2.5, age 56.2±6.1 years, body mass index (BMI) 35.9±4.1 kg/m2] were randomly assigned to three 45-day isocaloric VLCKD regimens (≤800 kcal/day) containing whey, plant or animal protein. Anthropometric indexes; blood and urine chemistry, including parameters of kidney, liver, glucose and lipid metabolism; body composition; muscle strength; and taxonomic composition of the gut microbiome were assessed. Adverse events were also recorded.
Results: Body weight, BMI, blood pressure, waist circumference, HOMA index, insulin, and total and LDL cholesterol decreased in all patients. Patients who consumed whey protein had a more pronounced improvement in muscle strength. The markers of renal function worsened slightly in the animal protein group. A decrease in the relative abundance of Firmicutes and an increase in Bacteroidetes were observed after the consumption of VLCKDs. This pattern was less pronounced in patients consuming animal protein.
Conclusions: VLCKDs led to significant weight loss and a striking improvement in metabolic parameters over a 45-day period. VLCKDs based on whey or vegetable protein have a safer profile and result in a healthier microbiota composition than those containing animal proteins. VLCKDs incorporating whey protein are more effective in maintaining muscle performance.
Sabrina Basciani,Elisabetta Camajani,Savina Contini,Agnese Persichetti,Renata Risi,Loris Bertoldi,Lidia Strigari,Giancarlo Prossomariti,Mikiko Watanabe,Stefania Mariani,Carla Lubrano,Alfredo Genco,Giovanni Spera,Lucio Gnessi