Abstract & Authors:展开
Background and Aims: Gastrointestinal (GI) manifestations have been increasingly reported in Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients. However, the roles of the GI tract in severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection are not fully understood. We investigated how the GI tract is involved in SARS-CoV-2 infection to elucidate the pathogenesis of COVID-19.
Methods: Our previously established nonhuman primate (NHP) model of COVID-19 was modified in this study to test our hypothesis. Rhesus monkeys were infected with an intragastric or intranasal challenge with SARS-CoV-2. Clinical signs were recorded after infection. Viral genomic RNA was quantified by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Host responses to SARS-CoV-2 infection were evaluated by examining inflammatory cytokines, macrophages, histopathology and mucin barrier integrity.
Results: Intranasal inoculation with SARS-CoV-2 led to infections and pathological changes not only in respiratory tissues but also in digestive tissues. Expectedly, intragastric inoculation with SARS-CoV-2 resulted in the productive infection of digestive tissues and inflammation in both the lung and digestive tissues. Inflammatory cytokines were induced by both types of inoculation with SARS-CoV-2, consistent with the increased expression of CD68. Immunohistochemistry and alcian blue/periodic acid-Schiff (AB-PAS) staining showed decreased Ki67, increased cleaved caspase 3 and decreased numbers of mucin-containing goblet cells, suggesting that the inflammation induced by these two types of inoculation with SARS-CoV-2 impaired the GI barrier and caused severe infections.
Conclusions: Both intranasal and intragastric inoculation with SARS-CoV-2 caused pneumonia and GI dysfunction in our rhesus monkey model. Inflammatory cytokines are possible connections for the pathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2 between the respiratory and digestive systems.
Li Jiao,Haiyan Li,Jingwen Xu,Mengli Yang
Shuaiyao Lu,Hongqi Liu,Xiaozhong Peng
Li Jiao,Haiyan Li,Jingwen Xu,Mengli Yang,Chunxia Ma,Jingmei Li,Siwen Zhao,Haixuan Wang,Yun Yang,Wenhai Yu,Junbin Wang,Jing Yang,Haiting Long,Jiahong Gao,Kaiyun Ding,Daoju Wu,Dexuan Kuang,Yuan Zhao,Jiansheng Liu,Shuaiyao Lu,Hongqi Liu,Xiaozhong Peng