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SCOPE: Little is known about the changes that a very-low-calorie ketogenic diet (VLCKD) produces in gut microbiota or the effect of synbiotics during the diet. The aim of this study is to evaluate changes in gut microbiota produced by a VLCKD and synbiotic supplementation.
METHODS AND RESULTS: A randomized, single-blind, parallel-design trial was conducted in 33 obese patients who followed a weight-loss program (PnK-Method) that included a VLCKD followed by a low-calorie diet (LCD). Subjects were randomly allocated to three groups: one supplemented with synbiotics, a second group supplemented with a placebo during the VLCKD and synbiotics during the LCD phase, and a control group given a placebo. Although symbiotic administration did not produce an effect on microbial diversity, an increase in short-chain fatty acid-producing bacteria and anti-inflammatory mediator signals such as Odoribacter and Lachnospira was shown. The administration of Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis and prebiotics fiber during the LCD was significantly associated with the percentage of weight loss and change in glucose, C-reactive protein and lipopolysaccharide-binding protein.
CONCLUSIONS: VLCKD produced important changes in gut microbiota. The administration of synbiotics during VLCKD could improve weight loss through the amelioration of inflammation, which may be mediated by the gut microbiota. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Carolina Gutiérrez-Repiso,Carmen Hernández-García,José Manuel García-Almeida,Diego Bellido,Gracia María Martín-Núñez,Lidia Sánchez-Alcoholado,Juan Alcaide-Torres,Ignacio Sajoux,Francisco Tinahones,Isabel Moreno-Indias