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Since the release of a previous meta-analysis on the effect of whole-grain intake on obesity measures, several clinical trials have been published. Therefore, we aimed to update the previous meta-analysis on the effect of whole-grain intake on obesity measures by including recently published studies, as well as considering the main limitations in that analysis. We searched the online databases of PubMed, Scopus, Clarivate Web of Science, EmBase, and Google Scholar for relevant studies published up to February 2019, using relevant keywords. Randomized clinical trials investigating the effect of whole-grain products or diets high in whole-grain foods, compared with a control diet, on anthropometric measures [including body weight, BMI, waist circumference, and fat mass (FM)] were included. In total, 21 studies with a total sample of 1798 participants, aged ≥18 years, were considered. Based on 22 effect sizes from 19 studies on body weight, with a total sample of 1698 adults, we found no significant effect of whole-grain consumption on body weight. The same findings were obtained for BMIs, such that using 10 effect sizes from 10 clinical trials with a total sample of 769 individuals we did not find any significant effect. With regards to body fat percentage [weighted mean difference (WMD): 0.27; 95% CI: -0.05 to 0.58%; P = 0.09], FM (WMD: 0.45; 95% CI: -0.12 to 1.02 kg; P = 0.12), fat-free mass (WMD: 0.31; 95% CI: -0.67 to 0.06 kg; P = 0.10), and waist circumference (WMD: 0.06; 95% CI: -0.50 to 0.63 cm; P = 0.82), we failed to find any significant effect of whole-grain consumption. In conclusion, our findings did not support current recommendations of whole-grain intake in attempts to control obesity measures. Given the beneficial effects of whole-grain intake on other measures of human health, additional well-designed studies are required to further investigate the effect on obesity. The protocol has been registered with PROSPERO (registration number CRD42018089176).
Omid Sadeghi,Mehdi Sadeghian,Sepideh Rahmani,Vahid Maleki,Bagher Larijani,Ahmad Esmaillzadeh