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We aimed to present a comprehensive review of the association of dietary glycemic index (GI) and load (GL) with the risk of chronic disease. Published meta-analyses of prospective observational studies evaluating the association of dietary GI and GL with risk of chronic disease were identified by a search in PubMed and Scopus to November, 2020. Summary relative risks (SRRs) were recalculated using random-effects models. The certainty of evidence was rated by the GRADE approach. Eighteen meta-analyses of prospective cohort studies, reporting 19 SRRs for dietary GI and 17 SRRs for dietary GL were identified. There was a positive association between dietary GI and the risk of type 2 diabetes, coronary heart disease, and colorectal, breast, and bladder cancers, as well as between dietary GL and the risk of coronary heart disease, type 2 diabetes, and stroke. With regard to cancers at other sites, there was no significant association. The certainty of evidence ranged from very low to low. Although by GRADE classification no associations were rated stronger than low, they were classified as one grade higher when the NutriGrade system was used. Further research is needed to add evidence for the relation of dietary GI and GL with cancer risk.
Ahmad Jayedi,Sepideh Soltani,David Jenkins,John Sievenpiper,Sakineh Shab-Bidar