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Diverse immunoregulatory circuits operate to preserve intestinal homeostasis and prevent inflammation. Galectin-1 (Gal1), a β-galactoside–binding protein, promotes homeostasis by reprogramming innate and adaptive immunity. Here, we identify a glycosylation-dependent “on-off” circuit driven by Gal1 and its glycosylated ligands that controls intestinal immunopathology by targeting activated CD8+ T cells and shaping the cytokine profile. In patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), augmented Gal1 was associated with dysregulated expression of core 2 β6-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase 1 (C2GNT1) and α(2,6)-sialyltransferase 1 (ST6GAL1), glycosyltransferases responsible for creating or masking Gal1 ligands. Mice lacking Gal1 exhibited exacerbated colitis and augmented mucosal CD8+ T cell activation in response to 2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid; this phenotype was partially ameliorated by treatment with recombinant Gal1. While C2gnt1−/− mice exhibited aggravated colitis, St6gal1−/− mice showed attenuated inflammation. These effects were associated with intrinsic T cell glycosylation. Thus, Gal1 and its glycosylated ligands act to preserve intestinal homeostasis by recalibrating T cell immunity.
Luciano G Morosi
Gabriel A Rabinovich,Karina V Mariño
Luciano G Morosi,Anabela M Cutine,Alejandro J Cagnoni,Montana N Manselle-Cocco,Diego O Croci,Joaquín P Merlo,Rosa M Morales,María May,Juan M Pérez-Sáez,María R Girotti,Santiago P Méndez-Huergo,Betiana Pucci,Aníbal H Gil,Sergio P Huernos,Guillermo H Docena,Alicia M Sambuelli,Marta A Toscano,Gabriel A Rabinovich,Karina V Mariño