每天该吃多少水果和蔬菜?190万人数据揭示答案
  • 纳入6.6万女性和4.2万男性随访约30年,发现果蔬摄入量与总/心血管/癌症/呼吸道疾病的死亡率之间呈非线性负相关;
  • 每天约5份果蔬或2份水果和3份蔬菜,对应的死亡率最低;
  • 与每天摄入2份相比,每天摄入5份果蔬与上述死亡率分别降低13%、12%、10%、35%相关;
  • 纳入额外24项队列共约190万人数据进行荟萃分析也得到相似结论;
  • 除豌豆和玉米等淀粉类蔬菜外,多数果蔬亚类的较高摄入量均与死亡率负相关,而果汁和土豆的摄入量与死亡率无关。
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多吃水果蔬菜有益健康长寿,吃多少最合适呢?Circulation近期发表了来自哈佛大学团队的研究,对美国NHS和HPFS两个大型队列以及额外24个前瞻性队列的数据进行分析,表明每天摄入约5份的水果蔬菜(2份水果和3份蔬菜,1份约80克)时死亡风险最低,而果汁和土豆的摄入量与死亡率无关。这项研究为膳食指南提供了重要的参考。
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Circulation [IF:23.603]

Fruit and Vegetable Intake and Mortality: Results From 2 Prospective Cohort Studies of US Men and Women and a Meta-Analysis of 26 Cohort Studies

水果和蔬菜的摄入量与死亡率:来自两项美国男女前瞻性队列研究以及对26项队列研究的荟萃分析的结果

10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.120.048996

03-01, Article

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BACKGROUND: The optimal intake levels of fruit and vegetables for maintaining long-term health are uncertain.
METHODS: We followed 66719 women from the Nurses’ Health Study (1984–2014) and 42016 men from the Health Professionals Follow-up Study (1986–2014) who were free from cardiovascular disease (CVD), cancer, and diabetes at baseline. Diet was assessed using a validated semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire at baseline and updated every 2 to 4 years. We also conducted a dose-response meta-analysis, including results from our 2 cohorts and 24 other prospective cohort studies.
RESULTS: We documented 33898 deaths during the follow-up. After adjustment for known and suspected confounding variables and risk factors, we observed nonlinear inverse associations of fruit and vegetable intake with total mortality and cause-specific mortality attributable to cancer, CVD, and respiratory disease (all Pnonlinear<0.001). Intake of ≈5 servings per day of fruit and vegetables, or 2 servings of fruit and 3 servings of vegetables, was associated with the lowest mortality, and above that level, higher intake was not associated with additional risk reduction. In comparison with the reference level (2 servings/d), daily intake of 5 servings of fruit and vegetables was associated with hazard ratios (95% CI) of 0.87 (0.85–0.90) for total mortality, 0.88 (0.83–0.94) for CVD mortality, 0.90 (0.86–0.95) for cancer mortality, and 0.65 (0.59– 0.72) for respiratory disease mortality. The dose-response meta-analysis that included 145015 deaths accrued in 1892885 participants yielded similar results (summary risk ratio of mortality for 5 servings/d=0.87 [95% CI, 0.85–0.88]; Pnonlinear<0.001). Higher intakes of most subgroups of fruits and vegetables were associated with lower mortality, with the exception of starchy vegetables such as peas and corn. Intakes of fruit juices and potatoes were not associated with total and cause-specific mortality.
CONCLUSIONS: Higher intakes of fruit and vegetables were associated with lower mortality; the risk reduction plateaued at ≈5 servings of fruit and vegetables per day. These findings support current dietary recommendations to increase intake of fruits and vegetables, but not fruit juices and potatoes.

First Authors:
Dong D Wang

Correspondence Authors:
Dong D Wang

All Authors:
Dong D Wang,Yanping Li,Shilpa N Bhupathiraju,Bernard A Rosner,Qi Sun,Edward L Giovannucci,Eric B Rimm,JoAnn E Manson,Walter C Willett,Meir J Stampfer,Frank B Hu

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30年200万人研究告诉你,蔬菜水果这样吃才长寿!

点评:引经据典,综合介绍的好文。

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