饮食如何改变味觉?(综述)
创作:orchid 审核:mildbreeze 01月08日
  • 味觉是可塑性的,随年龄、疾病、营养和环境暴露而改变;
  • 动物研究表明,高糖和高脂饮食通过重塑味觉细胞和神经的转录组和表观基因组,以及肥胖相关炎症导致的味觉干细胞分裂减少等机制,钝化对甜味刺激的反应;
  • 这种味觉功能改变可影响机体对食物营养的评估、抑制味觉相关的饱腹感、引起奖赏系统紊乱,从而影响食物选择、进食行为和代谢疾病的风险;
  • 饮食中的糖含量也会影响人类的味觉,需更多研究来了解高糖摄入对味觉和进食的影响。
主编推荐语
mildbreeze
虽然基因塑造了我们的味觉,使我们偏爱某些食物,但味觉会受到其他因素的影响,比如饮食中的糖脂含量。理解营养、味觉和进食行为之间的相互作用,并设计针对性的干预方法,将有助于防控很多“吃出来”的慢性疾病。Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism近期发表的综述,详细回顾了关于高热量饮食(特别是高糖饮食)对动物和人类甜味感觉的影响的研究发现,并总结、探讨了这类饮食在分子、神经和行为层面改变味觉感受的直接或间接机制。
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Confection Confusion: Interplay Between Diet, Taste, and Nutrition

糖果的迷惑:饮食、味觉和营养之间的相互作用

10.1016/j.tem.2020.11.011

2020-12-28, Review

Abstract & Authors:展开

Abstract:收起
Although genetics shapes our sense of taste to prefer some foods over others, taste sensation is plastic and changes with age, disease state, and nutrition. We have known for decades that diet composition can influence the way we perceive foods, but many questions remain unanswered, particularly regarding the effects of chemosensory plasticity on feeding behavior. Here, we review recent evidence on the effects of high-nutrient diets, especially high dietary sugar, on sweet taste in vinegar flies, rodents, and humans, and discuss open questions about molecular and neural mechanisms and research priorities. We also consider ways in which diet-dependent chemosensory plasticity may influence food intake and play a role in the etiology of obesity and metabolic disease. Understanding the interplay between nutrition, taste sensation, and feeding will help us define the role of the food environment in mediating chronic disease and design better public health strategies to combat it.

First Authors:
Christina E May

Correspondence Authors:
Monica Dus

All Authors:
Christina E May,Monica Dus

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