一文读懂:蘑菇如何影响免疫系统(综述)
创作:阿当 审核:szx 2020年12月27日
  • 蘑菇的免疫调节和抗肿瘤功效主要源自葡聚糖和生物活性蛋白(凝集素、真菌免疫调节蛋白、核糖体失活蛋白、核酸分解酶、漆酶等);
  • 不同蘑菇多糖可对巨噬细胞有不同影响,发挥促炎或抑炎作用;
  • 蘑菇多糖可促进树突细胞及淋巴细胞的活化及增殖,增强1型免疫应答、抗体产生、NK细胞的活化及细胞毒性;
  • 蘑菇脂质可降低血清胆固醇水平,多酚可发挥抗氧化作用;
  • 蘑菇菌株、生长条件、发育阶段、使用部分、萃取法和贮存条件影响相关实验结果。
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szx
Journal of Autoimmunity上发表的一篇综述文章,详细介绍了蘑菇中的各类物质(包括多糖、脂质及多酚)如何影响免疫系统,重点讨论了不同蘑菇多糖对巨噬细胞、树突细胞、T细胞、B细胞及NK细胞的调控作用。
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Mushrooms and immunity

蘑菇和免疫

10.1016/j.jaut.2020.102576

2020-12-01, Article

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In the wide field of nutraceuticals, the effects of mushrooms on immunity, cancer and including autoimmunity have been proposed for centuries but in recent years a growing interest has led scientists to elucidate which specific compounds have bioactive properties and through which mechanisms. Glucans and specific proteins are responsible for most of the biological effects of mushrooms, particularly in terms of immunomodulatory and anti-tumor results. Proteins with bioactive effects include lectins, fungal immunomodulatory proteins (FIPs), ribosome inactivating proteins (RIPs), ribonucleases, laccases, among others. At the present status of knowledge, numerous studies have been performed on cell lines and murine models while only a few clinical trials have been conducted. As in most cases of dietary components, the multitude of variables implicated in the final effect and an inadequate standardization are expected to affect the observed differences, thus making the available evidence insufficient to justify the treatment of human diseases with mushrooms extracts. We will herein provide a comprehensive review and critically discussion the biochemical changes induced by different mushroom compounds as observed in in vitro studies, particularly on macrophages, dendritic cells, T cells, and NK cells, compared to in vivo and human studies. Additional effects are represented by lipids which constitute a minor part of mushrooms but may have a role in reducing serum cholesterol levels or phenols acting as antioxidant and reducing agents. Human studies provide a minority of available data, as well illustrated by a placebo-controlled study of athletes treated with β-glucan from Pleurotus ostreatus. Variables influencing study outcomes include different mushrooms strains, growing conditions, developmental stage, part of mushroom used, extraction method, and storage conditions. We foresee that future rigorous research will be needed to determine the potential of mushroom compounds for human health to reproduce the effects of some compounds such as lentinan which a metaanalysis demonstrated to increase the efficacy of chemotherapy in the treatment of lung cancer and in the improvement of the patients quality of life.

First Authors:
Francesca Motta

Correspondence Authors:
Carlo Selmi

All Authors:
Francesca Motta,M Eric Gershwin,Carlo Selmi

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