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The mammalian intestine is colonized by trillions of microorganisms that have co-evolved with the host in a symbiotic relationship. The presence of large numbers of symbionts near the epithelial surface of the intestine poses an enormous challenge to the host because it must avoid the activation of harmful inflammatory responses to the microorganisms while preserving its ability to mount robust immune responses to invading pathogens. In patients with inflammatory bowel disease, there is a breakdown of the multiple strategies that the immune system has evolved to promote the separation between symbiotic microorganisms and the intestinal epithelium and the effective killing of penetrant microorganisms, while suppressing the activation of inappropriate T cell responses to resident microorganisms. Understanding the complex interactions between intestinal microorganisms and the host may provide crucial insight into the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease as well as new avenues to prevent and treat the disease.
Roberta Caruso,Bernard C Lo
Roberta Caruso,Bernard C Lo,Gabriel Núñez