野生狮尾狒的肠道菌群季节性变化
创作:lzm 审核:szx 02月04日
  • 在不同时间点从131只野生狮尾狒中收集了758份粪便样品;
  • 降雨(影响食物供应)和温度(影响体温调节)的季节性变化影响狮尾狒的肠道菌群组成,温度变化的影响小于降雨;
  • 在雨季,肠道菌群中有更多的纤维素分解和发酵细菌以促进草的消化,在旱季,淀粉降解细菌富集以促进地下植物的消化;
  • 在寒冷的旱季,参与能量、氨基酸和脂质代谢功能的细菌基因富集,提示温度和营养应激同时出现时,肠道菌群的发酵功能增强以帮助宿主维持能量平衡。
主编推荐语
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肠道菌群组成的适应性变化是野生动物适应食物季节性变化的方式之一。来自Microbiome上发表的一项最新研究,分析了野生狮尾狒(一种非人灵长类动物)的肠道菌群季节性变化,发现降雨及温度分别通过影响食物供应及体温调节,影响狮尾狒的肠道菌群组成及功能。该研究结果提示,肠道菌群的可塑性为宿主提供了对食物及温度等环境变化的适应性。
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Microbiome [IF:11.607]

Seasonal shifts in the gut microbiome indicate plastic responses to diet in wild geladas

野生狮尾狒的肠道菌群的季节性变化表明对饮食的可塑性反应

10.1186/s40168-020-00977-9

01-23, Article

Abstract & Authors:展开

Abstract:收起
Background: Adaptive shifts in gut microbiome composition are one route by which animals adapt to seasonal changes in food availability and diet. However, outside of dietary shifts, other potential environmental drivers of gut microbial composition have rarely been investigated, particularly in organisms living in their natural environments.
Results: Here, we generated the largest wild nonhuman primate gut microbiome dataset to date to identify the environmental drivers of gut microbial diversity and function in 758 samples collected from wild Ethiopian geladas (Theropithecus gelada). Because geladas live in a cold, high-altitude environment and have a low-quality grass-based diet, they face extreme thermoregulatory and energetic constraints. We tested how proxies of food availability (rainfall) and thermoregulatory stress (temperature) predicted gut microbiome composition of geladas. The gelada gut microbiome composition covaried with rainfall and temperature in a pattern that suggests distinct responses to dietary and thermoregulatory challenges. Microbial changes were driven by differences in the main components of the diet across seasons: in rainier periods, the gut was dominated by cellulolytic/fermentative bacteria that specialized in digesting grass, while during dry periods the gut was dominated by bacteria that break down starches found in underground plant parts. Temperature had a comparatively smaller, but detectable, effect on the gut microbiome. During cold and dry periods, bacterial genes involved in energy, amino acid, and lipid metabolism increased, suggesting a stimulation of fermentation activity in the gut when thermoregulatory and nutritional stress co-occurred, and potentially helping geladas to maintain energy balance during challenging periods.
Conclusion: Together, these results shed light on the extent to which gut microbiota plasticity provides dietary and metabolic flexibility to the host, and might be a key factor to thriving in changing environments. On a longer evolutionary timescale, such metabolic flexibility provided by the gut microbiome may have also allowed members of Theropithecus to adopt a specialized diet, and colonize new high-altitude grassland habitats in East Africa.

First Authors:
Alice Baniel

Correspondence Authors:
Alice Baniel,Amy Lu,Noah Snyder-Mackler

All Authors:
Alice Baniel,Katherine R Amato,Jacinta C Beehner,Thore J Bergman,Arianne Mercer,Rachel F Perlman,Lauren Petrullo,Laurie Reitsema,Sierra Sams,Amy Lu,Noah Snyder-Mackler

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