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Background: Mutations in the metabolic enzyme isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (mIDH1) occur in patients (pts) with cholangiocarcinoma (CC) and are detected in up to 25% of intrahepatic CC. mIDH1 produce the oncometabolite, D-2-hydroxyglutarate (2-HG), resulting in epigenetic and genetic dysregulation and oncogenesis. AG-120 is a first-in-class, potent, oral inhibitor of mIDH1 tested in this phase I study in mIDH1 solid tumors, including CC.
Methods: AG-120 was escalated in a 3+3 design from 100 mg twice daily to 1200 mg once daily (QD) in 28-day cycles (N = 60, mIDH1 advanced solid tumors). Key eligibility for CC: recurrence of progressive mIDH1 CC following standard therapy (dose escalation) or at least a prior gemcitabine-based regimen (expansion cohort). Response (RECIST 1.1) was assessed every 8 weeks. Plasma and tumor tissue were collected for exploratory analyses.
Results: Based on the safety, pharmacokinetic, and pharmacodynamic data from dose escalation, the 500 mg QD dose was selected for expansion in mIDH1 CC and other mIDH1 solid tumors. As of Dec 16, 2016, 73 pts with mIDH1 CC had been dosed in the dose escalation (n = 24) and expansion (n = 49) cohorts. Demographics: M/F = 24/49, median number of prior therapies = 2 (range 1–5), ECOG 0–1 = 26/47. There were no dose-limiting toxicities. Treatment-related adverse events (AEs) in ≥5% pts: fatigue (21%), nausea (18%), vomiting (12%), diarrhea (10%), decreased appetite (8%), dysgeusia (5%), QT prolongation (5%). Two (3%) pts experienced related grade 3 AEs: fatigue and low phosphorus. There were no AG-120-related AEs leading to discontinuation. Among the 72 efficacy evaluable (≥1 post baseline response assessment or discontinued prematurely) mIDH1 CC pts (24 in escalation and 48 in expansion cohort), 6% (n = 4) had a confirmed partial response and 56% (n = 40) experienced stable disease. The progression-free survival rate at 6 months was 40%, and 8 pts have been treated with AG-120 for ≥1 year.
Conclusions: In this pretreated mIDH1 CC population, AG-120 was associated with a favorable safety profile and prolonged stable disease. A global, phase III, randomized, placebo-controlled study of AG-120 in mIDH1 CC has been initiated (ClarIDHy).
Maeve Aine Lowery