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The intestine is a site of direct encounter with the external environment and must consequently balance barrier defense with nutrient uptake. To investigate how nutrient uptake is regulated in the small intestine, we tested the effect of diets with different macronutrient compositions on epithelial gene expression. We found that enzymes and transporters required for carbohydrate digestion and absorption were regulated by carbohydrate availability. The “on-demand” induction of this machinery required γδ T cells, which regulated this program through the suppression of interleukin-22 production by type 3 innate lymphoid cells. Nutrient availability altered the tissue localization and transcriptome of γδ T cells. Additionally, transcriptional responses to diet involved cellular remodeling of the epithelial compartment. Thus, this work identifies a role for γδ T cells in nutrient sensing.
Zuri A Sullivan
Zuri A Sullivan,William Khoury-Hanold,Jaechul Lim,Chris Smillie,Moshe Biton,Bernardo S Reis,Rachel K Zwick,Scott D Pope,Kavita Israni-Winger,Roham Parsa,Naomi H Philip,Saleh Rashed,Noah Palm,Andrew Wang,Daniel Mucida,Aviv Regev,Ruslan Medzhitov