不同饮食模式对健康指标的影响
创作:szx 审核:szx 2020年02月23日
  • 纳入80篇文献(共包含495项对RCT进行的荟萃分析)进行伞状回顾,分析常见饮食模式对人体测量学及心血管代谢指标的影响;
  • 最一致的证据表明,地中海饮食对体重、BMI、总胆固醇、血糖及血压具有改善作用;
  • 提示性证据表明,DASH饮食可改善体重及血压;
  • 提示性/不充分证据表明,低碳水化合物饮食、高蛋白饮食、低脂饮食、低升糖指数饮食可改善体重及BMI,但对血脂、血糖及血压的影响表现出冲突证据。
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szx
Advances in Nutrition上发表的一项对RCT的荟萃分析的伞状回顾研究,分析了各类常见饮食模式(包括地中海饮食、DASH饮食、素食等)对体重、BMI、血糖、血压、血脂等人体测量学及心血管代谢指标的影响,发现大多数研究的证据强度较弱,多数研究的方法学质量低或极低,且不同研究在对饮食干预及对照饮食的定义上有很大差异。最一致的证据表明,地中海饮食可改善体重、BMI、总胆固醇、血糖及血压等指标。
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Effects of Popular Diets on Anthropometric and Cardiometabolic Parameters: An Umbrella Review of Meta-Analyses of Randomized Controlled Trials

常见饮食对人体测量学及心血管代谢指标的影响:对RCT的荟萃分析的伞状回顾

10.1093/advances/nmaa006

2020-02-14, Review

Abstract & Authors:展开

Abstract:收起
The prevalence of overweight, obesity, and their related complications is increasing worldwide. The purpose of this umbrella review was to summarize and critically evaluate the effects of different diets on anthropometric parameters and cardiometabolic risk factors. Medline, Embase, Scopus, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, and Web of Science, from inception to April 2019, were used as data sources to select meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials that examined the effects of different diets on anthropometric parameters and cardiometabolic risk factors. Strength and validity of the evidence were assessed through a set of predefined criteria. Eighty articles reporting 495 unique meta-analyses were examined, covering a wide range of popular diets: low-carbohydrate (n = 21 articles), high-protein (n = 8), low-fat (n = 9), paleolithic (n = 2), low-glycemic-index/load (n = 12), intermittent energy restriction (n = 6), Mediterranean (n = 11), Nordic (n = 2), vegetarian (n = 9), Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) (n = 6), and portfolio dietary pattern (n = 1). Great variability in terms of definition of the intervention and control diets was observed. The methodological quality of most articles (n = 65; 81%), evaluated using the “A MeaSurement Tool to Assess systematic Reviews-2” questionnaire, was low or critically low. The strength of evidence was generally weak. The most consistent evidence was reported for the Mediterranean diet, with suggestive evidence of an improvement in weight, BMI, total cholesterol, glucose, and blood pressure. Suggestive evidence of an improvement in weight and blood pressure was also reported for the DASH diet. Low-carbohydrate, high-protein, low-fat, and low-glycemic-index/load diets showed suggestive and/or weak evidence of a reduction in weight and BMI, but contrasting evidence for lipid, glycemic, and blood pressure parameters, suggesting potential risks of unfavorable effects. Evidence for paleolithic, intermittent energy restriction, Nordic, vegetarian, and portfolio dietary patterns was graded as weak. Among all the diets evaluated, the Mediterranean diet had the strongest and most consistent evidence of a beneficial effect on both anthropometric parameters and cardiometabolic risk factors. This review protocol was registered at www.crd.york.ac.uk/PROSPERO/ as CRD42019126103.

First Authors:
Monica Dinu

Correspondence Authors:
Francesco Sofi

All Authors:
Monica Dinu,Giuditta Pagliai,Donato Angelino,Alice Rosi,Margherita Dall'Asta,Letizia Bresciani,Cinzia Ferraris,Monica Guglielmetti,Justyna Godos,Cristian Del Bo',Daniele Nucci,ErikaMeroni,Linda Landini,Daniela Martini,Francesco Sofi,on behalf of theWorking Group “Young Members”of the Italian Society of Human Nutrition (SINU)

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